Exhibit 4.1




The following is a general description of shares of our common stock based upon our Certificate of Incorporation (our “Certificate of Incorporation”), our Bylaws (our “Bylaws”), and applicable provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”). This summary does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by, the full text of our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws, each of which is incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the Annual Report on Form 10-K of which this exhibit is a part.




Our Certificate of Incorporation authorizes us to issue up to 101,000,000 shares of capital stock, consisting of 100,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share (“Common Stock”), and 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share (“Preferred Stock”). Our Certificate of Incorporation authorizes our Board of Directors (our “Board”) to determine any number of series into which the undesignated shares of Preferred Stock may be divided and to determine, at any time and from time to time, the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions granted to any series of such Preferred Stock, as described below.


Common Stock


Dividend Rights


Subject to preferences that may apply to shares of Preferred Stock outstanding at the time, the holders of outstanding shares of our Common Stock are entitled to receive dividends out of funds legally available at the times and in the amounts that the Board may determine.


Voting Rights


Each holder of our Common Stock is entitled to one vote for each share of our Common Stock held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. Cumulative voting for the election of directors is not provided for in our Certificate of Incorporation, which means that the holders of a majority of the voting shares voted can elect all of the directors then standing for election.


No Preemptive or Similar Rights


Holders of our Common Stock do not have preemptive rights, and our Common Stock is not convertible or redeemable.


Right to Receive Liquidation Distributions


Upon our dissolution, liquidation or winding-up, the assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders are distributable ratably among the holders of our Common Stock, subject to the preferential rights and payment of liquidation preferences, if any, on any outstanding shares of Preferred Stock.




Preferred Stock


Each share of our undesignated shares of Preferred Stock may be issued in series, and shall have such voting powers, full or limited, or no voting powers, and such designations, preferences and relative participating, optional or other special rights, and qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, as shall be stated and expressed in the resolution or resolutions providing for the issuance of such stock adopted from time to time by the Board. The Board is expressly vested with the authority to determine and fix in the resolution or resolutions providing for the issuances of Preferred Stock the voting powers, designations, preferences and rights, and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, of each such series to the full extent now or hereafter permitted by the laws of the State of Delaware.


Anti-takeover Provisions


We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL regulating corporate takeovers. This statute prevents certain Delaware corporations, under certain circumstances, from engaging in a “business combination” with:



a stockholder who owns 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock (otherwise known as an “interested stockholder”);


an affiliate of an interested stockholder; or


an associate of an interested stockholder, for three years following the date that the stockholder became an interested stockholder.


A “business combination” includes a merger or sale of more than 10% of our assets. However, the above provisions of Section 203 do not apply if:



the Board approves the transaction that made the stockholder an “interested stockholder,” prior to the date of the transaction;


after the completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, that stockholder owned at least 85% of our voting stock outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, other than statutorily excluded shares of Common Stock; or


on or subsequent to the date of the transaction, the business combination is approved by the Board and authorized at a meeting of our stockholders, and not by written consent, by an affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock not owned by the interested stockholder.


Our authorized but unissued Common Stock and Preferred Stock are available for future issuances without stockholder approval (including a specified future issuance) and could be utilized for a variety of corporate purposes, including future offerings to raise additional capital, acquisitions and employee benefit plans. The existence of authorized but unissued and unreserved Common Stock and Preferred Stock could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or otherwise.